Chemical characterization of environmental and industrial
Ortner H. M., Hoffmann P., Stadermann F. J., Weinbruch S., and
Wentzel M. (1998). The Analyst (London) 123, p. 833-842.
The characterization of particles - especially aerosol
particles - is of great importance to many scientific fields. (A
relevant brief overview is given.) A rigorous scheme of sampling and
in-depth characterization of particulate samples has been developed at
our laboratory and collaborative groups including investigations by:
- Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for
quantitative bulk characterization
- Solid state speciation by valence band X-ray spectrometry
using electron microprobe or Moessbauer spectrometry (only bulk
particle characterization possible).
- Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe
microanalysis for automatic semiquantitative single particle
characterization of particles > 0.5 µm.
- Transmission electron microscopy for semiquantitative
single particle characterization of particles with diameters down to 10
- High resolution-scanning electron microscopy which is also
capable of characterizing particles morphologically and qualitatively
down to 10 nm in diameter.
- Secondary ion mass spectrometry for the study of trace
elemental distributions and isotopic ratios in particles with diameters
It is the aim of this paper to show the advantages and
characteristics of this scheme of analysis to match today's
requirements for topochemical methods of analysis. For this purpose a
short overview of these methods for particle characterization is also